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Specification Sheets for Australian Essential Oils

The following Oils are included:

1. Australian Paper Bark Tree - Tea Tree
Melaleuca alternifolia
(Maiden & Betche) Cheel
(refers to black trunk and white branches and the alternating foliage)

2. Australian  White Cloud oil
Melaleuca bracteata
F. Muell.
(refers to black trunk and white branches

3. Australian Melaleuca linariifolia Oil
Paper Bark Tree or Snow-in-Summer
Melaleuca linariifolia Smith
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and leaves like the toad flax genus Linaria)

4. Australian Niaouli Oil CT cineole
Broad-Leaved Paper Bark Tree
Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T.Blake
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and with 5 nerves)

5. Australian Nerolina Oil CT nerolidol
Broad-Leaved Paper Bark Tree
Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and with 5 nerves)

6. Australian Rosalina Oil
Swamp Paper Bark Tree
Melaleuca ericifolia Smith
(refers to black trunk and white branches and with leaves  like the genus Erica)

7. Australian Anise Myrtle Oil
Aniseed Tree
Backhousia anisata J. Vickery
(After James Blackhouse, a 19th century English nurseryman and Quaker missionary and for oil of Anise seed)

8. Australian Lemon Myrtle Oil
Lemon Scented Myrtle Tree or Lemon Ironwood Tree
Backhousia citriodora F. Muell.
(After James Backhouse, 19th century English nurseryman and Quaker missionary and lemon-scented)

9. Tasmanian Lavender Oil
Lavender Plant
Lavandula angustfolia Miller
(refers to Latin word lavare which refers to the older uses of this plant in soap and ‘to wash’ and narrow-leaved)

10. Australian Lemon-Scented Tea Tree (Citratum) Oil
Lemon-Scented Tea Tree
Leptospermum petersonii Bailey
[From the Greek word referring to the slender (leptos) seeds (sperma) and names after W. J. Peterson , the original collector in 1905].

11. New Zealand Manuka Oil or Tairawhiti Manuka Oil
Manuka Tree
Leptospermum scoparium J. & G. Forster - East Cape Type CT beta-triketones
[From the Greek and refers to the slender seeds (leptos and sperma) and broom-like (scoparium)]

12. New Zealand Kanuka Oil
Burgan Tree
Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich.) J. Thompson (Leptospermum ericoides)
(After Gustav Kunze, 18-19th century, a Professor of Botany in Leipzig, Germany, and resembles the genus Erica)

13. Tasmania Kunzea or Spring Flower Oil [Du Cane Kunzea Oil]
Tick Bush, White Kunzea Tree
Kunzea ambigua (Smith) Druce
(After Gustav Kunze, 18-19th century, a Professor of Botany in Leipzig, Germany, and ambiguous or doubtful)

14. Australian Blue Cypress Oil
Northern Cypress Pine
Callitris intratropica R. T. Baker & H. G. Smith
(from the Greek calli or beautiful and treis or three, in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves i.e. scales and intratropica within the tropics)

15. Australian Victorian Emerald Cypress Oil
Coastal Cypress Pine
Callitris columellaris F. Muell.
(from the Greek calli or beautiful and treis or three, in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves i.e. scales and the central column of the tree is prominant)

16. Australian Jade Cypress Oil
White Cypress Pine
Callitris glaucophylla (syn. Callitris glauca)
(from the Greek calli or beautiful and treis or three, in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves i.e. scales and silvery leaves)

17. Australian Buddha Wood Oil
False Sandalwood Tree
Eremophila mitchellii Benth.
[to love (phila) a lonely place or desert (eremos) and named after Sir Thomas Mitchell, a 19th century explorer and botanist]

18. West Australian Sandalwood Oil
Fragrant Sandalwood Tree
Santalum spicatum R. Br.
(Sandalwood and the size of a head of a grain)

19. Australian Blue-Leaved Mallee Oil
Eucalyptus Mallee Tree
Eucalyptus polybractea CT cryptone
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and many bracts]

20. Australian Eucalyptus Gully Gum tree
Gully Gum or Blackbutt Peppermint Tree
Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and after H. G. Smith, chemist who investigated the oils of the Eucalypts]

21. Australian Eucalyptus Narrow-leaf tree
Narrow-leaf Peppermint Tree/Australian Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus radiata Sieber ex DC.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and flower bud radiating]

22. Australian Peppermint Tree CT piperitone Oil
Broad-Leafed Peppermint Tree
Eucalyptus dives Schauer CT piperitone
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and rich and plentiful which refers to the flowers or the leaf oils]

23. Australian Eucalyptus Iron-Bark
Lemon-Scented Ironbark Tree
Eucalyptus stageriana F. Muell. ex Bailey
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and after K. T. Staiger, a former Government Analytical Chemist, Qld]

24. Australian Eucalyptus Lemon-Scented Tree
Lemon-Scented Gum Tree
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and lemon-scented]

25. Tasmanian and Victorian Eucalyptus Blue Gum Tree
Blue Gum Tree
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and the fruit is a little ball]

26. Tasmanian Peppermint Oil
Peppermint plant
Mentha x piperita
(after the goddess Mentha and pepper-scented)


1. Australian
Tea Tree Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Paper Bark Tree - no common name
Melaleuca alternifolia
(Maiden & Betche) Cheel
(refers to black trunk and white branches and  alternate leaves on the stem)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation— Leaves  & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
An evergreen tree, up to 4-7 m with a spread of 4 m, native to the northern coastal area of New South Wales. White flowers from spring to early summer, with leaves that are alternate, lance-shaped and narrow to a point (acuminate).

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A slightly yellow to colorless oil, clear through, non-viscous and watery, not intense odor (4 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is herbaceous, green and celery-like with subsidiary notes of wood, fungal earth and back notes of camphor and spice. Dry down is herbaceous, camphoraceous and fungal. Taste is mild.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —       0.89 - .91
Refractive Index  —       1.47 - 1.48
Optical Rotation —      +5° to 15°
Solubility w/ethanol — clear sol'n 1 eo•2 vol. 85%  
Moisture Content— no visible water

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
36.6% terpinene-4-ol
22.0% gamma-terpinene
11.4% alpha-pinene
  6.1% 1,8-cineole (up to 30% acceptable with over 30% terpinene-4-ol present)
3.6% terpinolene
varying amounts, up to 3%  of alpha-pinene, para-cymene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, aromadendrene, viridiflorene and gamma-cadinene

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, an immune stimulant, expectorant, mild local analgesic, organic solvent and parasiticide.

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants 5
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols.Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
A large spectrum of action. Used externally on skin for acne, sores, cuts, used internally for respiratory problems, bacteria and parasites in the gut and vagina, used by inhalation for problems of the sinus, throat and lungs. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, flavor and fragrance.


2. Australian    
White Cloud oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Melaleuca bracteata
F. Muell.
(refers to black trunk and white branches

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation of the Leaves

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
An evergreen paper bark tree or shrub found in a variety of places in central to northern to western Australia. A profusion of white flowers appear in the spring, hence the name "White Cloud".

OIL CHARACTERISTICS

 

 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Density — @ 15°          1.025 - 1.039
Refractive Index @ 20°  1.529 - 1.535
Optical Rotation @ 20° -1.25° to -4.0°
Solubility - 70% ethanol - Clear sol'n 1 vol. eo in 1 vol. 70%

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE - A variety of chemotypes influences the chemical profile.
70-85% methyl eugenol
4-10% elemicin
4-10% methyl cinnamate
0.5-5% alpha-terpinolene, beta-caryophyllene
0.5-4% para-cymene, methyl chavicol
up to 3% limonene, myrcene

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Insecticide, anti-microbial, carminative, absorbs UV

Bibliography:
----. The Medicinal Plant Industry .
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense.

USES
flavor, fragrance and perfumery, insect repellents


3.  Australian
Melaleuca linariifolia Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
 Paper Bark Tree or Snow-in-Summer
Melaleuca linariifolia
Smith
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and leaves like the toad flax genus Linaria)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A tall shrub or small tree, up to 10 m with a spread of  8 m, abundant throughout the coastal district of NSW and Qld. Wide-spread crown, papery bark, leaves linear to narrow elliptical, many-white flowers, profuse. Flowering trees are spectacular.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pale yellow to colorless oil, clear through, non-viscous and watery, not intense odor (4-5 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is herbaceous, somewhat green with floral back notes. Taste is fragrant and mild.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15° —   0.89 - 0.899       
Refractive Index  —             1.475 - 1.478    
Optical Rotation —            +3° 18' to +6° 48' 
Solubility w/ethanol —      Soluble in 0.8 vol. of 80%
alcohol      Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
32.5% terpinene-4-ol
17.7% gamma-terpinene
 8.9% alpha-pinene
 8% 1,8-cineole (up to 30% acceptable with over
30% terpinene-4-ol present)
  6.1% sabinene which may convert to terpinene-4-ol when tree matures
  3.3% terpinolene
varying amounts, up to 2%  of alpha-pinene, para-cymene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, aromadendrene,  and delta-cadinene

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Germicidal

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Guenther, The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
If the tree is distilled in flower, the hydrosol is particularly pleasant and can be used in all sorts of cosmetic preparations. A large spectrum of uses, particularly in germicides and soaps.


4. Australian
Niaouli Oil CT cineole

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Broad-Leaved Paper bark Tree
Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav,) S.T. Blake
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and with 5 nerves)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal stems.

 

DESCRIPTION
An erect evergreen small to medium tree, up to 20 m with thick grayish papery bark. Leaves flat, stiff, leathery. Very aromatic leaves with distinct odors depending on Chemotype. Native to the swamps and water ways of the eastern coastline. Cineole type also found in New Guinea and New Caledonia

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A clear, colorless watery oil, non-viscous, medium intensity odor (4-5 on a 1-10 scale), the scent is pungent with herbs, camphor,  a  fungal and green subsidiary note and fruity, spicy back notes. The taste is herbaceous.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  @ 20º
Specific Gravity  @ 15º — 0.912 to 0.922   
Refractive Index    —          1.4670 to 1.4722
Optical Rotation   —          -0°10' to + 1°18'
Solubility —         Soluble in 1 vol. of 80% alcohol
Moisture Content —

CHEMICAL PROFILE
50.8% cineole
10.6% alpha-pinene
10.0% limonene
7.2% alpha-terpineol
4.5% viridiflorol
3.5% beta-pinene
1.2 to 1.5% of linaloöl, terpinene-4-ol, beta-caryophyllene

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and vermifuge, anti-infectious.

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Essentially Oils Limited, Newsletter, August 2002
Guenther, The Essential Oils
private communications.
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense

USES
Useful for children as the scent is pleasant and the results quick. Inhaled for respiratory care, used in suppositories as an immune-stimulant, used externally for all sorts of skin ailments and disease or abscess. Internally as a vermifuge. Gargle for sore or strep throat. Useful in blending with more medicinal smelling oils, can be used in men's skin care products.


5. Australian
Nerolina Oil CT nerolidol

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Broad-Leaved Paperbark Tree
Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav,) S.T. Blake
(refers to black trunk and white branches of many species and with 5 nerves)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal stems.

 

DESCRIPTION
An erect evergreen small to medium tree, up to 20 m with thick grayish papery bark. Leaves flat, stiff, leathery. Very aromatic leaves with distinct odors depending on Chemotype. Native to the swamps and water ways of the eastern coastline.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless to pale yellow, clear and watery oil, non-viscous, medium intensity odor (4-5 on a 1-10 scale), the scent is predominating in  floral with herbs, camphor,  a slight fungal and green subsidiary note and fruity, spicy back notes. The taste is herbaceous and pleasant.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15° —    0.885 - 0.895      
Refractive Index —              1.4851 to 1.4815 
Optical Rotation —   slightly dextro +10.7º to -12.4º  
Solubility w/70% ethanol — clear sol'n with 1 vol. oil & 1.5 vols. 70% ethanol        
Moisture Content— none

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
60-90% nerolidol (trans and cis)
16.5% linaloöl
trace to 3% cineole

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-hypertensive

Bibliography:
Franchomme & Penoël .
Aromatherapie
Guenther, The Essential Oils
private communications.
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense

USES
Extremely effective used externally on skin rash, itching from insect bites. Inhale to relax and relieve tension.  Useful for children as the scent if pleasant and the results quick. Useful in blending with more medicinal smelling oils, can be used in men's skin care products. "Hormone-like adrenal tonic"


6. Australian
Rosalina Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Swamp Paperbark Tree
Melaleuca ericifolia Smith
(refers to black trunk and white branches and with leaves like the genus Erica)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Stems.

 

DESCRIPTION
A tall  erect evergreen bushy shrub to small tree, 6-12 mm  with  grayish papery bark. Leaves are soft, alternate, narrow, flowers white to cream and scented. Distributed in low lying swamps, creeks and behind sand dunes. Southern Victoria along coast to Northern NSW and Bass Strait Islands.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pale golden in color, clear and  watery oil, non-viscous, medium intensity odor (5 on a scale of 1-10), the scent soft, herbal, floral with spicy back notes. The taste is herbaceous and numbing.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20º
Specific Gravity —            0.8770 - 0.8785      
Refractive Index  —             1.529 - 1.535
Optical Rotation —            +1.24° - -4.0°
Solubility — Clear solution with 1 vol. oil in 1 vol. of 70% ethanol
Moisture Content —  none

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
39-55% linaloöl
14-26% cineole
2-12% alpha-pinene
up to 5% aromadendrene
up to 4-5% limonene and para-cymene

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-bacterial, antifungal, sedative, carminative, anti-convulsing, decongestant, immune-stimulant, styptic.

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël .
Aromatherapie
Guenther, The Essential Oils
private communications.
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense

USES
Respiratory inhalant and sedative. Calming and relaxing. Useful for nighttime inhaling prior to sleep. Personal care and children products.

 


7. Australian
Anise Myrtle Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Aniseed  Tree
Backhousia anisata J. Vickery
After James Backhouse, 19th century English nurseryman and Quaker missionary and oil of anise)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Aerial Parts

DESCRIPTION
A rare and endangered tree, up to 50 m that grows in sub-tropical Rainforest confined to valleys and endemic of northern NSW. It has rough, corky brown bark with dense foliage of tapering lanceolate leaves (shaped like a lance) characterized by the aniseed odor. Fragrant, creamy white flowers that appear in late spring and summer.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless oil, clear through, non-viscous and watery, intense odor (7-8 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is spicy, subsidiary notes of herbs and wood, fruity back note and pure licorice taste.

 

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°  —    0.895 - 0.915            
Refractive Index  —                1.488 - 1.49      
Optical Rotation —               +3.5° to +12.0°    
Solubility w/70% ethanol —  Clear sol'n 1 vol. eo in less than 3 vols. ethanol  
Moisture Content—               None

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
66-80% methyl chavicol
20-30% E - anethole (trans-anethole)
trace of 1, 8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-farnesene

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, sedative, carminative, insect repellent, a dermal irritant in high doses. High amounts of methyl chavicol are anesthetic and anti-spasmodic.

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense

USES
A large number of applications in the flavor and fragrance industry, can be used to mask the scent or flavor of other essential oils and useful in perfumery and relaxing massage.


8. Australian
Lemon Myrtle Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Lemon Scented Myrtle Tree or Lemon Ironwood Tree
Backhousia citriodora F. Muell.
(After James Backhouse, 19th century English nurseryman and Quaker missionary and lemon-scented)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Branchlets

 

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
An evergreen medium shrub to medium tree, to 20 m. native to Southern Queensland. Young shoots are hairy. Glassy, green, strongly lemon-scented aromatic leaves and abundant flowers.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A slightly yellow oil, clear, non-viscous and watery, semi-intense odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10 ),  citrus odor predominating, some herbaceous and mildly woody back notes. Strong aromatic citrus peel taste.

 

 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°—     0.895 - 0.915
Refractive Index —               1.4880 - 1.4900
Optical Rotation —              +3.5° to +12.0°
Flash Point —                      102°
Solubility - 70% ethanol -  Clear sol'n with 1 vol. oil in less than 7 vols. 70%
Moisture Content — None

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
90-95% Citral (Neral + Geranial)
0.1 - 1% Citronellal
trace of beta-pinene, linaloöl, beta-caryophyllene, methyl heptonone, cyclocitral and myrcene

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-bacterial, powerful anti-viral, sedative.

Bibliography:
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël .
Aromatherapie
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
——. Respiratory Chart. 2002
——. The Medicinal Plant Industry .
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense.

USES
Apply directly to cold sores or herpes. Add to many perfume bases for the powerful citrus odor.  Irritant to skin, so use with caution. Use in diffuser to cleanse the air or respiratory system. Used in flavor industry.

"When given orally or by inhalation (citral), may possess prominent protective effects against bronchial asthma that is induced by inhalation of broncho-constrictors  Like May Chang oil the essential oil may inhibit anaphylactic shock when inhaled, and has a relaxing effect on the tracheal muscle."


9. Tasmanian
Lavender Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Lavender Plant
Lavandula angustifolia Miller
(lavare referring to the old use of this plant in soap and to narrow leaves)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation— Flowers and Tops also solvent extracted

DESCRIPTION
Small, perennial, hardy, shrub, linear leaves, terminal inflorescence of small, highly fragrant flowers, blooms in early summer. Extreme forms of variation according to terroir.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A slightly, very pale gold to colorless oil, clear, non-viscous and watery,  not intense odor (2 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is a soft, sweet Lavender floral, with a herbaceous subsidiary note and unique spicy back note.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Density   —              0.879             
Refractive Index  —  1.485 to 1.464     
Optical Rotation —   -3° to -11°  
Solubility — Soluble in 2 - 4.5 vol. of 70%  ethanol  
Moisture Content— no visible water

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
38.6% linaloöl
29.82% linalyl acetate
5+% 3-octanone, cis- beta-ocimene
2+% caryophyllene, terpinene-4-ol, lavandulyl acetate traces of many other compounds
0.29-% camphor

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Mainly soothing and sedating but also anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, and relaxing to the body. Hypotensive (lowers blood pressure)

Bibliography:
Cosmetic Science in Australia. The Lavender Story. Vol. 3, No. 1, 198_?
Guenther.
The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Ubiquitous uses with a very large spectrum of action. Used externally for many skin care conditions; used by inhalation for a variety problems and in many relaxing products; some internal, rectal, vaginal uses. A primary component of many cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, in fragrance and perfume compounds.


10. Australian
Lemon Scented Tea Tree (Citratum) Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Lemon-Scented Tea Tree
Leptospermum petersonii Bailey
[From the Gk. and referring to the slender (leptos) seeds (sperma) and named after W.J. Peterson the original collector in 1905].

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves and Small Stems

 

DESCRIPTION
An evergreen shrub, semi-hardy,  up to 3-7 m.  native to southern Queensland and north NSW.  Bright green leaves, narrow with a strong lemon order. Used as a street tree in various areas.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pale to medium yellow oil, clear, non-viscous and watery, medium intense odor (5 on a scale of 1-10). The scent is strong citrus-green lemon odor, with herbaceous subsidiary note and light floral back note. Slightly numbing to the tongue.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @15°  —        0.800 - 0.900             
Refractive Index  —                  1.4750 - 1.4850    
Optical Rotation —                 +1.5° to +10.0°   
Solubility in 70% ethanol — 1 vol. soluble in 3 vol. ethanol
Moisture Content—       none

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
45-65% citral (neral + geranial)
21.6%  citronellal
2-3% isopulegol, citronellol, geraniol
1.7% linaloöl
traces of many other chemicals

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-histamine, sedative, insect repellent.

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones.
Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Rose, Jeanne . 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense
private communications of case studies.

USES
Use direct on cold sores or herpes, apply around ears to relieve vertigo, use in creams or lotions as insect repellent or diffuse to cleanse air and repel insects.  Good addition to cosmetics and toiletries. ‡Skin irritant.


11. New Zealand
Manuka Oil or Tairawhiti Manuka Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Manuka Tree
Leptospermum scoparium J. & G. Forster — East Cape type CT beta-triketones
[From the Gk. and referring to the slender (leptos) seeds (sperma) and broom-like]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A semi-hardy shrub to small tree ranging in size from a creeping plant to a tree 6 m in height, adaptable, and growing throughout New Zealand. Used as a flowering landscape tree in many parts of the U.S.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A slightly yellow, clear, non-viscous and watery, low intensity odor (3-4 on a scale of 1-10) , the scent is oddly floral, with a sustaining herbal note and some fruity back note. Vegetal dry-down. No taste.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity  —           0.950 - 0.975             
Refractive Index  —          1.496 - 1.506     
Optical Rotation —     
Solubility w/ethanol —     Clear sol'n with 1 vol. oil to
2 vols. 100% EtOH  
Moisture Content—         none

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
10  - 20.0% leptospermone
 9.0 - 18% calamanene
 3 - 8 % delta-cadinene, cadina-1,4-diene, flavesone
 2  - 7% alpha-cubebene alpha-copaene, alpha-selinene, iso-leptospermone
1 - 6% beta-selinene

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-bacteria against gram + bacteria, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine, anti-allergenic, disinfectant.

Bibliography:
Cooke and Cooke, Cawthron Report #263l, 1994.  An Investigation into the Antimicrobial Properties of Manuka and Kanuka Oil.
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones.
Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Manuka, Herbal Gram issue 53
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Topical uses for many types of skin  and hair care products, particularly effective against acne, body and foot odor


12. New Zealand
Kanuka Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Burgan Tree
Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich.) J. Thompson (Leptospermum ericoides)
(After Gustav Kunze, 18-19th-century, professor of botany in Leipzig, Germany and resembles the genus Erica)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves, Flowers & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A medium shrub to small tree ranging in size to 8 m in height, adaptable, and growing throughout New Zealand from sub alpine to lowland. Flowers are sweetly scented with stamens longer than the corolla in Kunzea vs. Leptospermum.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A very pale yellow , clear, non-viscous and watery, not intense odor (3 on a  scale of 1-10 scale), the scent is lightly herbaceous, very slightly vegetative and fruity. Very slight numbing taste.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —       0.87             
Refractive Index  —       1.473     
Optical Rotation —        N/A    
Solubility w/ethanol —   
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
66.49% alpha-pinene
4.67% limonene
2-3% C12, alpha-selinene, viridiflorol
1-2% cineole, linaloöl, calamenene, spathulenol, ledol (Ledum camphor)

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Better than Pine oil for respiratory inhalation, air cleanser, anti-bacterial, disinfectant

Bibliography:
Cooke and Cooke, Cawthron Report #263l, 1994.  An Investigation into the Antimicrobial Properties of Manuka and Kanuka Oil.
Elliott and Jones.
Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, #8.1997. "Essential Oils from New Zealand"
private communications.

USES
Inhale for respiratory health, air cleanser, effective against Staphylococcus aureus, particularly where there is antibiotic resistance (mixes well with Manuka)


13. Tasmania
Kunzea or Spring Flower Oil [Du Cane Kunzea Oil]

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Tick Bush, White Kunzea Tree
Kunzea ambigua (Smith) Druce
(After Gustav Kunze, 18-19th-century, professor of botany in Leipzig, Germany and ambiguous or doubtful)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves, Twigs & Small Branches

DESCRIPTION
A small to medium shrub,  grows wild in Tasmania, NSW as a woodland species, young growth hairy, branches many, leaves alternate; flowers solitary in dense clusters, sometimes profuse with a strong sweet scent that can be overpowering.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A yellowish oil, clear, non-viscous and watery, low intensity odor (3 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is herbal, vegetal and a bit spicy with a bland taste.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —   0.912 at room temperature             
Refractive Index  —      
Optical Rotation —     
Solubility w/ethanol —   
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
33-39.9% alpha-pinene
 9-15.8% 1,8-cineole
11.9% globulol
09.4-11% viridifloral
05.1% bicyclogermacrene
02.9-4% alpha-terpineol

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, solvent.

Bibliography:
Du Cane Estate paper
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Kunzea.
Simply Essential. February 2001
private communications.
University of Tasmania analysis

USES
Sports and injury relief, diffuses bruising, reduces swelling and irritation by application, relieves arthritis pain, chilblain and muscular pain by application, relieves sinus pain and anxiety by inhalation.


14. Australian
Blue Cypress Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Northern Cypress Pine
Callitris intratropica R. T. Baker & H. G. Smith
(from the Greek calli beautiful and treis three in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves, scales  and within the tropics)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Peeled Logs

 

 

DESCRIPTION
Medium sized conifer tree of the Cupressaceae family, plantation grown, to 25 m,  widespread in coastal and inland areas of northern Australia. The leaves and cone-scales whorled, cones ripen in 1-2 years.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A vivid and pure cobalt-blue colored oil, opaque, viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominating wood, with vegetal sustaining notes and back notes of herbs and floral. The taste is bitter. Turns green when oxidized.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —       0.976               
Refractive Index  —        1.5055 to 1.5075    
Optical Rotation —        -0.1 to +0.5°  
Solubility w/ethanol —   
Moisture Content—

CHEMICAL PROFILE
13-17.3%  guaiol
 8-10% bulnesol
 7.7% gamma-eudesmol
 9% alpha- & beta-eudesmol
15-17% assorted terpenes, including guaiazulene
8%  complex ketones

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Analgesic, insect repellent, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral.

Bibliography:
Boland, D.J. to Turner. Forest Trees of Australia
Elliott and Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Mabberley, D. J. The Plant-Book. p.116
Olsen, Cynthia. Birth of the Blue, Kali Press. 2000
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark. Blue Cypress in Aromatherapy Today
private communications.

USES
A valuable addition to skin products. Used externally the scent is useful in men's products.  It treats warts, skin  irritations, diaper rash and muscle aches and pains. A superb 'first-aid' oil.


15. Australian
Victorian Emerald Cypress Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Coastal Cypress Pine
Callitris columellaris F. Muell.
(callitris from the Greek calli beautiful and treis three in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves, scales and the central column is prominent)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Wood

DESCRIPTION
A hardy evergreen conifer tree to 20 m, confined to coastal scrubs of Northern NSW and Queensland with spreading branches, not pyramidal, the central column is prominent, and bright dark-green scale-like leaves and small wrinkled cones.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A beautiful emerald green color, clear like green water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominantly  fruity, woody sustaining note and green/vegetal and floral back notes. Bitter taste.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity  @15° —    0.871 - 0.910                              
Refractive Index  —        1.4680 - 1.4960   
Optical Rotation —        +22.0° to +26.0°     
Solubility w/ethanol —    Clear sol'n - 1 vol. oil in 8 vol. of 70% V/V ethanol             
Moisture Content—        None

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
24.3% citronellic acid
20% guaiol
15% various alcohols
12% various terpenes

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Analgesic, maybe other properties unknown at this time.

Bibliography:
Australian Medicinal Plants
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones.
Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Relieves muscular aches and pains, an excellent perfumery ingredient particularly for masculine body care products.


16. Australian
Jade Cypress Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
White Cypress Pine
Callitris glaucophylla (syn. Callitris glauca)
(callitris=from the Greek calli beautiful and treis three in allusion to the beautiful 3-fold arrangements of its parts, leaves, scales and silvery leaves)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Wood

 

DESCRIPTION
An evergreen conifer tree of the Cupressaceae family, small to medium size, 7-30 m high, Common in inland woodlands and rolling hills on a variety of soils in Qld and northern NSW.  Straight trunk. Bark dark gray, to pinkish brown. Mature leaves green, reduced to tiny scales in alternating whorls of 3.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pleasant jade-green color, clear like greenish water, sticky and viscous like cane syrup, medium intensity odor (5-6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is predominant green/vegetal and woody, sustaining notes of herbaceous and a floral back note. Bitter taste.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —     0.9689 - 0.990             
Refractive Index  —      1.486  - 1.5037     
Optical Rotation —      +2.0 - 2.8  [-0.45°*] 
Solubility w/ethanol —  4 vols. of 85% EtOH 
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
20% alpha-guaiene
11-12% delta-, alpha-andbeta-selinene
11.9-14.7% guaiol
11% bulnesol
10% alpha-andbeta-eudesmol
4.6-4.9% dihydrocolumellarin
2-3% callitrisin
3-5% columellarin

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Analgesic

Bibliography:
Cronin, Leonard. Key Guide to Australian Trees
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
*
Australian Phytochemicals Limited
private communications.

USES
Relieves pain, swelling and bruising for external muscle symptoms. It can be used in cosmetics, and fragrance materials for its fine color and masculine scent.


17. Australian
Buddha Wood Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
False Sandalwood Tree
Eremophila mitchellii Benth.
[to love (phila) a lonely place or desert (eremos) and named after Sir Thomas Mitchell, 19th century explorer and botanist]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Wood & Bark

DESCRIPTION
An evergreen and often resinous shrub to small tree 3-8 m in height, (a woody weed), growing in many areas predominately found on Western slopes and plains of NSW and Queensland, dark rough bark, with hairless leaves that are bright green and aromatic. The scented wood is burnt for its pleasant aroma.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A dark copper red oil, opaque, viscous, medium intensity odor (6 on a scale of 1-10 scale), the scent predominate in wood with a vegetal sustaining note and somewhat spicy back note. The taste is bitter.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°   —  1.02 - 1.05(sinks in H2O)              
Refractive Index  —        1.529 - 1.535     
Optical Rotation —       +1.24° to -4.0°    
Solubility w/ethanol —   Clear sol'n with 1 vol. oil in 1 vol. of 70% V/V ethanol               
Moisture Content—       None

CHEMICAL PROFILE
unique and closely related sesquiterpene ketones
30-60% eremophilone
6-25% 2-hydroxyeremophilone
11-30% 2-hydroxy-2-dihydroeremophilone

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
somewhat analgesic, fixative balsam

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Guenther, The Essential Oils
Mabberley, D. J. The Plant-Book. 2nd Edition
private communications.

USES
Pain relief of sore muscles and joints when used in  massage  oil. Useful as an addition in men's toiletries and scent for its unique color and woody odor.


18. West Australian
Sandalwood Oil

 COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL, Comment
Fragrant Sandalwood Tree
Santalum spicatum R. Br.
(Sandalwood and the size of a head of a grain)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Solvent Extracted and then the Concrète is Steam-Distilled  — Heartwood & Rootball

 

DESCRIPTION
A small evergreen tree,  to 20 ft. and trunk 6-10 in. in diameter, throughout most of Western Australia, rough and fibrous bark and dark brown heartwood

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless to yellow oil, clear, viscous, mid intensity odor (5 on a scale of 1-10), the scent has a predominant floral and woody note, with back notes of fruit, citrus and spice. The taste is a bit bitter and sour.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —   0.9602                            
Refractive Index  —    1.5063     
Optical Rotation —    0.8  (-3° to -10° in G) 
Solubility w/ethanol —  Clear sol'n with 1 vol. oil in 1
vol. of 70% V/V ethanol               
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
10-12% pre- alpha-santalol compounds
25-60 alpha- & beta-santalol
30% bergamatol-like compounds
4-10% alpha-bisabolol
5-10% farnesol

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, possibly chemo-protective and blood pressure regulator.

Bibliography:
Guenther, The Essential Oils, vol. V, p.189-191
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense
private communications.

USES
Used both orally and externally against UTI and gonorrhea, more effective against  Candida than Tea Tree oil, useful for many skin diseases such as acne and tinea, inhaled for calming or for the respiratory system and used as an exciting perfume addition.


19. Australian
Blue­-leaved Mallee Oil

BOTANICAL AND CHEMOTYPE NAME
Eucalyptus polybractea CT cryptone

EXTRACTION PROCESS
Steam Distillation of the Leaves

BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
An evergreen multi-stemmed shrub, up to 8 m high common to semi-arid interior of New South Wales and Bendigo in Victoria. Flowers from March to June; sometimes again in September, the blossoms occur in clusters in leaf forks.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless, non-viscous, intensely smelling odor (7 on a scale of 1-10) with a bitter vegetable taste. Herbaceous scent with Cumin overtones, fruity subsidiary note and vegetative spicy back notes.

 

 SPECIFICATION
Density — ?
Refractive Index — ?
Optical Rotation — ?
Solubility — ?

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
54.5% cineole
19.7% beta-phellandrene
6.8% alpha-phellandrene
2.7% limonene
1.6-1.9% each of alpha-pinene, alpha-thujene, sabinene, myrcene, terpinene-4-ol, cryptone

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
mucolytic, expectorant,  antiviral, anti-malarial.

Bibliography:
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
----. The Medicinal Plant Industry.

USES
Used externally on warts, including genital warts. Taken internally for intestinal parasites and male sexual problems. Inhaled in combination with other essential oils.


20. Australian
Eucalyptus smithii Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL  NAME, Comment
Gully Gum or Blackbutt Peppermint Tree
Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and after H.G. Smith, chemist who investigated the oils of the Eucalypts]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A medium to large tree, to 35 m, south coastal NSW and eastern Vic., prefers gullies, solitary, bark persistent, juvenile leaves opposite and then alternate.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pale yellow oil with a pink cast, clear through, non-viscous/watery, not intense odor (3-4 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is very fruity, citrus with back notes of herbs and spice. Fruity taste.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°  —  0.916 to 0.9198              
Refractive Index  —              1.460 to 1.465               
Optical Rotation —             +4°48' to +5°36'   
Solubility w/70% ethanol — Soluble in 1 vol.  
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
78% cineole
8 % alpha-pinene
6% limonene
2% alpha-terpineol

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Mucolytic, anti-infective, disinfectant, local analgesic, calming

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël. from The Aromatic Thymes, Vol. 2 #1 Winter 1994
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Mild and gentle and particularly useful for children's or sensitive persons respiratory complaints. Can be used neat on the body as a preventative, in the diffuser as a room deodorizer, in massage oil for painful joints and muscles. Inhale for nighttime calm.


21. Australian
Eucalyptus radiata Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Narrow-leaf Peppermint Tree/Australian Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus radiata Sieber ex DC.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and flower bud radiating]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A small to tall tree, to 30 m, common to NSW and Vic., occurs in wide range of soil types, dense canopy, solitary trunk, bark rough, juvenile leaves initially opposite and then alternate and very aromatic.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless oil, clear through, non-viscous/watery, intense odor (8 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is camphoraceous, herbal, spicy and back note of fruit. A vegetal dry down. Spicy astringent taste .

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°   —  0.905 to 0.924            
Refractive Index  —              1.459 to 1.465    
Optical Rotation —              0° to +9°  
Solubility w/ethanol —   
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
50-70% 1, 8-cineole
 8-32% alpha-terpineol
6-8% limonene
 2-4% alpha-pinene
 1-2% myrcene, beta-phellandrene, terpinene-4-ol, terpenyl acetate

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Mucolytic, expectorant,  anti-infectious, rhinitis, muscle relaxer.

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël .
Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils ( E. numerosa)
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Inhaled and specific for sinus infection and pain, wet coughs, smells great and is cooling for hot flashes, used for skin ailments such as acne, can be used (diluted) on tampons for vaginitis. ‡can be irritating


22. Australian
Eucalyptus Dives CT piperitone Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Broad-Leafed Peppermint Tree
Eucalyptus dives Schauer CT piperitone
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and rich and plentiful which refers to the flowers or the leaf oils]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A medium tree to 25 m, widespread over SE NSW and parts of Vic., lives in poor soil, with open to dense canopy, trunk solitary and erect, bark fibrous, juvenile leaves opposite and mature leaves alternate, flowers white-cream and profuse.

Regular Coppicing maintains growth as cut foliage.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A pale gold to colorless oil, clear through, non-viscous and watery, medium intensity odor (6 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is woodland green and vegetal, very herbaceous, spicy and fruity back notes. Taste is minty.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°   —     0.8892 to 0.91            
Refractive Index  —                 1.4769  to 1.4812     
Optical Rotation —                  -43.8° to -78.0°   
Solubility w/ethanol —            1.3 to 10 vol. 70%  
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
34.8-50%  piperitone
20-23.1% alpha-phellandrene
 3-7% para-cymene
various others including thujene, myrcene, terpinene, terpinolene,  terpinene-4-ol

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Disinfectant, anti-asthmatic and deodorant

Bibliography:
Brooker and Kleinig. Eucalyptus
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Powerful use as an inhalant for sinus and bronchial conditions, diluted and used vaginally for leucorrhea or vaginal warts. Useful as a room mister with other Eucalypts for short periods of time.

 ‡Can be irritating and some consider it abortive.


23. Australian
Eucalyptus stageriana Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Lemon-Scented Ironbark Tree
Eucalyptus stageriana F. Muell. ex Bailey
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and after K. T. Staiger, a former Government Analytical Chemist, Qld]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A small to medium tree, to 20 m,  solitary, straight, bark persistent, juvenile leaves alternate and light green on both surfaces and strongly lemon-scented.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A very pale light yellow, clear through, non-viscous and watery, not intense odor ( 4 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is citrus, woody, vegetal and herbaceous with a fruity back note. Spicy vegetal taste with a bite.

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°  —      0.871 to 0.893           
Refractive Index  —                  1.4793 to 1.4814
Optical Rotation —                  -26.4° to -37.5°   
Solubility w/ethanol —             1 to 8 vol. 80%  
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
28-32% limonene
21% citral (geranial + neral)
7-9% terpinolene
4-6% para-cymene, 1,8-cineole, methyl geranate
2-3% pinene, alpha-phellandrene, linaloöl, geranyl acetate
1-2% terpinene-4-ol,  nerol, terpineol, neryl acetate

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Anti-viral, anti-bacterial, antiseptic, decongesting.

Bibliography:
Brooker and Kleinig. Eucalyptus
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Useful in the vaporizer to scent rooms and cleanse the air. Can be used in skin care products in blends with other oils. Perfumery and toilet preparations.
 ‡Skin irritant.

 


24. Australian
Eucalyptus citriodora Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Lemon-Scented Gum Tree
Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and lemon-scented]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves
SD began in 1854

DESCRIPTION
A medium to tall tree, restricted to 2 localities in Qld in open forests, trunk solitary, straight, crown wide and spreading, bark deciduous, leaves alternate and narrow to lanceolate - stalked and hairy.

Coppice production. (the regular removal of plant growth at or just above ground level)

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A golden yellow with touch of pink color, clear like water, non-viscous, medium intense odor (6-7 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is strongly citrus with a sweet fruity subsidiary note and floral back note.  Strong  citrus taste.

 

 

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15° —  0.864 to 0.877             
Refractive Index  —            1.450 to 1.459
Optical Rotation —           -1.0° to +6.5° 
Solubility w/ethanol —      1.5 to 4.2 vol. 70% 
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
81.7% (70-85%) citronellal
4-5% citronellol
also small amounts of pinene, limonene, iso-pulegol, citronellyl acetate and caryophyllene

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Not a germicide, insect repellent, cooling, air cleanser, sedating and anti-inflammatory at low dose. Bacteriostatic against. S. aureus.

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of
Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
Webb, Mark A. Bush Sense
private communications.

USES
A great summer oil that is cooling, can be used in bathing, perfumery and skin care, misted to cleanse the air, used in candles and soaps as a cleanser or an insect repellent.


25. Tasmanian and Victorian
Eucalyptus globulus Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Blue Gum Tree
Eucalyptus globulus Labill.
[well-covered, (the flower bud has a cap) and the fruit is a little ball]

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Terminal Branches

DESCRIPTION
A medium to tall tree, up to 55 m, open to moderately dense canopy, trunk upright and branching, leaves opposite becoming alternate, leaves narrow-lanceolate and aromatic. Widely planted throughout the world.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS (virgin unrectified)
A rich gold colored oil, clear through, non-viscous/watery, medium intense odor (7 on scale of 1-10), the scent is strongly herbaceous, spice and green subsidiary notes and citrus and fruit back notes. A cooling taste.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity @ 15°   —  0.910 to 0.930          
Refractive Index  —               1.460 to 1.470  
Optical Rotation —              +0.3° to +15°
Solubility w/ethanol —         1.5 to 3.0 vol. 70%  
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
63% 1,8-cineole
22% alpha-pinene
4.6% limonene
2-3% aromadendrene

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
Mucolytic, expectorant, stimulant, mild local analgesic

Bibliography:
Elliott, W. Rodger and David L. Jones. Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999.
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
Inhaled for deep respiratory infections or infections of the sinus and bronchials, apply to aching muscles and joints.


26. Tasmanian
Peppermint Oil

COMMON NAME, BOTANICAL NAME, Comment
Peppermint plant
Mentha x piperita
(after the goddess Mentha and pepper scented)

PRODUCTION METHOD
Steam Distillation — Leaves & Tops
Great seasonal variation of quantity and composition of the oil depending on harvest time.

DESCRIPTION
A medium-sized herb, up to 3 ft, with dark green to blackish  square stem and dark green leaves. A sterile hybrid cross rarely setting seeds. The plant exudes a strong eponymous 'peppermint' odor.

OIL CHARACTERISTICS
A colorless, clear, non-viscous and water, very intense odor (8 on a scale of 1-10), the scent is typical and eponymous mint, with herbaceous notes and fruity and spicy back notes. Cooling menthol taste.

PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES @ 20°
Specific Gravity   —  0.901              
Refractive Index  —    1.461 
Optical Rotation —    -21° to -33°    
Solubility w/ethanol —   clear to turbid in 2.5 to 3.5 vol. of 70% alcohol; opalescent to turbid with more
Moisture Content—

 

CHEMICAL PROFILE
46.8% menthol
21.9% menthone
3.7% menthyl acetate
5.05% cineol
pulegone abundant during flowering. 
the balance in other alcohols, terpenes and others
Chemistry depends on time of harvest  during the season.
For menthol-rich oils harvest after flowering.

 

ESSENTIAL OIL PROPERTIES
cooling, anti-viral, tonic, stimulant, disinfectant, tonic first-aid, digestive

Bibliography:
Chalchat, Jean-Claude and others, Variation of Chemical Composition ...During Growing Time, J.Essent.Oil Res., 9, 463-465
Franchomme & Penoël . Aromatherapie
Guenther. The Essential Oils
Kerr, John. Peppermint Profile in Simply Essential
Rose, Jeanne . The Aromatherapy Studies Course, CH. 14. 1999
——. 375 Essential Oils & Hydrosols. Frog. 1999.
private communications.

USES
The oil of digestion, eases flatulence and belching, cleanses the air of a sick room, cooling to breathe, heating to apply, used by inhalation for migraine and headache.  A powerful addition to body-care products, dentifrice, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, flavor and fragrance.

 


The foregoing 26 Specification Sheets of the Australian Essential Oils was researched and completed as a project for Melaleuca Estates, a company located in the Los Angeles area.  These lovely Australian Essential Oils are available through them at PH 323/660-7914 and FAX 323/660-7922.

©All Rights Reserved 2003, 2004. No part of this article may be used
without prior permission from The Aromatic Plant Project.
©Author's Copyright and Jeanne Rose, info@aromaticplantproject.com


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